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Nature's limit ??? (15 – 20 kJ/kg) Achieved 100 Projected 10–1 10–2 1960 New metallized technology 1970 1980 1990 Year 2000 2010 2020 Figure 1. The time line of increasing energy density in energy discharge capacitors, starting from the early 1960s. CAPACITOR INSULATION ;; ; ; ;;; ; ; ; ;;;;; ; 18 Energy density of capacitors for voltages from 50 to 600 V 102 Energy density ( kJ/kg) Tant. elec C16 (NPO) Alum. elec PLZT (×7T) 1st MLO OOB (×7R) 101 100 10–1 10–2 Figure 2. Projected power densities for highfrequency ac ϩ dc filter capacitors.

Typical ESLs might be as low as 500 pH. Using a feedthrough design (a four terminal MLC), ESLs as low as 100 pH are achievable. For the SMPS design from 100 kHz through 1 MHz, the ESR has made the MLC a preferred choice for performance. Its low ESL will make it equally superior in the range of SMPS designs above 1 MHz. Cost of Ceramics. For the small surface-mountable commercial chips with capacitances up to a few microfarads, the major cost factor is the metal, though these chips are already extremely inexpensive.

TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN METALLIZED POLYMERIC FILM CAPACITORS OVER THE PAST 10 YEARS Introduction ESR (Ω) This section analyzes the highlights of design, construction, and application of metallized polypropylene capacitors. Polypropylene (PP) capacitors are indispensable in high-voltage power applications, where the ultralow loss characteristics of PP film is not approached by other dielectric systems. Metallized film technology has evolved into dry and liquid Summary ac line-frequency capacitors, low- and high-voltage dc capaciPower conversion applications still require large capacitors to tors, high-peak-current capacitors, and high-frequency capaccarry high load currents, and these are generally electrolytic itors.

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