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By Sascha W. Felix

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Additional quantity of N or P may be required to obtain maximum benefits from the organic fertilizer. Table 4: Algal Production Vs. Different Fertilizer Combinations Fertilizers Lab-lab Plankton Urea 623. 0 475. 5 Chicken manure + Urea * 514. 0 826. 7 Chicken manure + ammonia phosphate ** 424. 0 721. 3 Chicken manure + phosphate *** 878. 3 341. 7 Ammonium phosphate 339. 5 451. 7 Chicken manure 468. 0 312. 3 No fertilizer 346. 5 190. 8 Phosphate 382. 5 172. 5 Means 497. 0 437. 3 *: 46–0–0; **: 16–20–0; ***: 0–20–0.

The uropods of Mysidacea are not spread fan-like as in shrimp, but are parallel, directed posterior. ‘Penaeus’ post-larvae are long and thin, while that of ‘Metapenaeus’ are relatively short and stout. Metapenaeus are generally coloured a mottled gray or brown. Postlarvae within the genus Penaeus are generally almost colourless, however, P. monodon and P. semisulcatus are coloured rust-brown. When the pigment chromatophores expand, a prominent bluish or reddish-brown streak appears on the ventral side of the body in P.

The most effective way to correct low dissolved oxygen levels in such a pond is to reduce the amount of algae, bacteria and detritus in the water. This can be done by draining a portion of the pond water and refilling it with clean water, which is otherwise called as ‘exchange’. Heavy rains can cause stratification of water layers, especially if the pond is deep without much wave action. In such situtation the lighter freshwater floats on top of the more dense salt water. Such stratification can results in oxygen depletion in the lower salt water layer.

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