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Gross h e u r i s t i c s c o v e r s o m e s i m p l e r cases. If i t or t h e y o c c u r s t w i c e in t h e s a m e s e n t e n c e , or i n two a d j a c e n t s e n t e n c e s , t h e o c c u r r e n c e s a r e a s s u m e d to b e e o r e f e r e n t i a l . This u s u a l l y works, b u t t h e r e are, as always, e a s y e o u n t e r e x a m p l e s , s u c h as (3-6) ( f r o m Minsky 1968): (3-6) He p u t t h e b o x on t h e t a b l e . B e c a u s e i t w a s n ' t level, i t slid off.

The l l7-year-old timepiece apparently was the victim of metal fatigue. 47 Here the paraphrase (underlined) gives us n e w information, in this case about the age of the clock. , clock. (If the noun phrase had been a... ) In the next example, there is no definite article or other pointer to help resolve the coreference: 45it is not an epithet either, as it can be stressed if spoken. 46Could we take this analysis backwards, and construe the Pope as a cataphor of th~ b e l o v e d pontiff as we did in footnote ~9?

In s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s , we shall s o m e t i m e s , w h e r e it is fairly e a s y to do so, b e g e n e r a l a n d a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m of r e f e r e n c e . At o t h e r t i m e s , we shall c o n c e n t r a t e m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y o n a n a p h o r a . This is w h a t AI w o r k e r s call t h e vacillation paradigm. 2. o~, Chapter 3 TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO ANAPHORA They w e n t a b o u t a n d s a n g o f R a m a ' s deeds; a n d R f f m a h e a r d o f it, a n d he c a l l e d a n a s s e m b l y o f the B r a h m a n s a n d all h i n d s o f g r a m m a r i a n s .

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