Download Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks by Michael Woods PDF

By Michael Woods

Were you aware . . .Ancient cultures measured time safely with water clocks? An engineer within the first century B.C. designed an odometer to calculate distance traveled? humans computed the 1st values of pi approximately 4 thousand years in the past? Computing know-how is as previous as human society itself. the 1st people on the earth used simple computing abilities. They counted through carving tally marks in bone. They used physique components and simple instruments to degree. Over the centuries, historic peoples discovered extra approximately computing. humans within the old heart East used scales to degree items for buying and selling. the traditional Egyptians wrote textbooks together with multiplication and department difficulties. the traditional chinese language constructed an abacus for quick calculations. historic Greeks made advances in geometry. What sorts of instruments and strategies did historic mathematicians use? Which in their innovations and discoveries have stood the try of time? and the way did the ancients set the level for our personal glossy computing? study extra in historical Computing expertise.

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A full set contained 271 sticks. Rods were placed on the counting board’s squares, with each column from right to left representing the 1s, 10s, 100s, 1,000s, and so forth. Rods that were not carefully placed on the board could cause confusion. d. 200s, stick numbers used lines in alternating directions. The 1s numeral, on the right, used vertical lines. The 10s column used horizontal lines, then vertical lines for the 100s, and the pattern repeated. An empty square stood for 0. d. 700, when people in India began using a symbol for 0, use of the symbol passed into China also.

Tsu Ch'ung-Chih and Tsu Keng-Chih found the value of pi to be about 355  113. 1415929203 when rounded to ten decimal places. It remained the most accurate value of pi for about 1,200 years. “ten mathematical classics,” along with the Nine Chapters. c. d. 100, though its material is believed to be older. Much of the work focuses on measuring the positions and movements of objects in the sky with a gnomon. ” Another part of the manual discusses side lengths and areas of right triangles. For many years, this text has been credited with proving how the lengths of the sides of a right triangle are related.

We don’t know her name or anything about her. But she must have been very important. THE ANCIENT AMERICAS 53 and harvesting crops. The Maya also celebrated many religious holidays, which had to be observed on the same days each year. To keep track of lucky days and holidays, the Maya needed an accurate calendar—one in step with the solar year. The Maya used two calendars. The Tzolkin, or sacred calendar, contained 260 days. The days were named after Mayan gods, thought to carry time across the sky.

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