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Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic study Series.

The four million to twenty million sq. kilometers of sea ice that surrounds the Antarctic continent represents one of many biggest and such a lot dynamic ecosystems in the world. This sea ice matrix presents a habitat for a large choice of organisms, a few of which stay their whole lives in the ice whereas others are just occasional viewers. huge grazers, reminiscent of copepods and krill which come to the ocean ice to feed, symbolize vital hyperlinks among sea ice biota and the pelagic surroundings. regrettably, as a result of inherent trouble of sampling such an atmosphere, many elements of this special habitat are nonetheless poorly understood. the aim of this quantity is to provide new information regarding this surroundings in order that its position in the Antarctic food-web (and as a sink for carbon dioxide) and its susceptibility to environmental alterations should be greater understood.

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Volumeis sufficientlyhigh (>70 %0)that the seaice poFrom the beginningof OctoberthroughDecember,the rosity allows free exchangeof nutrients(an additional thickestsnow cover was concentratedin a region near sourceof nutrientsfor the freeboardlayer). When the 30øE, after which time the underlying sea ice disap- snow cover thins, the ice pack floats higher in the water peared (Plate 1). After December, the thickest snow column and the nutrient supply to the infiltration and coverwasrestrictedto a relativelynarrowbandof multi- freeboardlayer becomesrestricted,resultingin a marked yearice adjacentto the coast.

1 1 i i lO i i ' i lOO 1000 0 i 0 i i 20 PUR* (pEinstrn-2s-1) i 40 i i i 60 i• 80 100 Salinity (%o) Fig. 5. The relationshipbetweenalgal growthand (a) temperature(seeEq. 6), (b) nitrateconcentration(seeEq. 8, silicateis not shownhere), (c) light availability(seeEq. 10), and (d) brine salinity (seeEq. 11) usedin the model. Salinitycanhavea substantial impact calculatedas the averagedmonthly climatologiesfrom years 1989-1991 of the TOMS data. Total column precipitablewater was calculatedas the averagedmonthly climatological data from Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder(TOVS) for the years 1985-1988.

This resultedin estimatesof algal standingcropwhich,by the end of April, were>300%toohigh. 045d'l) resultedin a 40% reductionin algal standingcrop by early Januarywhich continueduntil the end of the simulation. The high sensitivityof the modelto changesin L highlightsthe needfor furtherinvestigationof the processesleadingto the lossof algal biomassfrom the pack ice ecosystem. : PRIMARY PRODUCTION efficiency [Garrisonand Buck, 1991]. Becausethe loss rate usedin the model was determinedby adjustingits valueuntil the simulatedalgalstandingcropin the Weddell Seawasin agreementwith in situobservations, there are only two explanationsfor its low value.

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