By Jr. Arthur E. Bryson, Yu-Chi Ho
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Extra resources for Applied Optimal Control: Optimization, Estimation and Control
1 The convention used here for subscript order for signal (linear) variables is common to the NMOS and PMOS. This is consistent with the fact that the linear model does not distinguish between the two types. Thus, for example, the dc terminal voltage for a PMOS is VSG, but the signal equivalent is Vgs (Fig. 3) and the signal input voltage is positive at the input terminal (common-source, gate input). For the PMOS, iD is defined as positive out of the drain, but the signal output current is into the drain (as in the NMOS).
3(a) shows a currentsource version. The body-effect parameter, gmb, is defined as positive. 1) is negative. In Fig. 3(b) the body-effect current source is reversed to eliminate the minus sign, and the current source associated with gds is replaced with a resistance. The latter is possible as the voltage-dependent current source is between the same nodes as the voltage. 3. 1). The body-effect parameter, gmb, is a positive number such that current from the current source is in the direction opposite the arrow.
1. DC (Bias) Circuit Dc circuits for the grounded-source amplifier are shown in Fig. 1 (PMOS). The circuit in (a) is based on a single power supply, and the gate bias is obtained with a resistor voltage-divider network. The circuit in (b) is for a laboratory project amplifier. Both VGG and VSS are negative, since the source is at ground. There is no voltage drop across RG since there is negligible gate current. RG is necessary only to prevent shorting the input signal, Vi. 1. Basic PMOS common-source amplifiers.