By David E. McDysan
ATM (Asynchronous move Mode) and MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) are either criteria for moving details over networks. it is a whole consultant to realizing and enforcing those networking applied sciences.
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17 18 ATM & MPLS Theory & Application: Foundations of Multi-Service Networking Applications and Networks Change Faster Than Behavior It is often easier to get people to perform existing tasks using a better tool than it is to get them to change their overall behavior. This has been a hallmark of the historical innovation of communications. For example, telegraphy was a major disruptive technology in that it decoupled communication from transportation [Odlyzko 01]. No longer did communication travel at the rate at which a messenger or postal system could transport packages—a short message could be sent across long distances in seconds to minutes.
Vendors developed ATM interface cards for workstations and servers in the latter part of the 1990s, which in retrospect was the peak of ATM development. Now, fewer new standards are being developed for ATM, and much of the focus of ATM is in support of Frame Relay, voice, and circuit emulation. As described in Chapter 10, the drive that created MPLS was to make a bigger and better Internet. The Internet standards body, service providers, and router vendors were the ones to drive forward this important effort, which took several years.
But here again, creative innovators have found ways to squeeze even more bandwidth out of the existing twisted pairs deployed to major enterprises and many households through cable modem and DSL technologies, as discussed in Chapter 11. Bandwidth in the WAN, as many pundits projected, is not yet “free” (and never will be), but it is becoming less expensive when delivered at very high volumes between points directly connected by optical fiber. That is, faster circuits are generally less expensive when measured on a cost per bit per second basis.