By Siegfried Hofmann
To someone who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this publication is ready to offer acceptable details. in accordance with normal software examples in fabrics technological know-how, a concise method of all elements of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny movies with AES and XPS is supplied. ranging from easy rules that are step-by-step constructed into virtually necessary equations, broad tips is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with contemporary advancements in subject matters similar to floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. easy family are derived for emission and excitation perspective dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer constructions, and for either delicate and tough surfaces. it's proven tips to optimize the analytical technique, signal-to-noise ratio, walk in the park and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer constructions in sensible situations (e.g. infection, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to severely evaluate diversified methods to quantification with admire to normal matrix correction components and matrix relative sensitivity elements. cutting-edge matters in quantitative, damaging and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on perspective resolved XPS and AES. considering preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an advent to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.
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Additional resources for Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials Science: A User-Oriented Guide
11 Schematic view of a typical ion gun for sputter depth profiling with electron impact ionization chamber, electron-optical system with deflection/scanning plates to bent the ion beam in order to avoid neutrals impinging on the analyzed spot (courtesy of C. ) Because of the above specifications, these ion sources have recently become popular in depth profiling of thicker layers. 26], a magnetically constricted arc generates a high density plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The advantage of the duoplasmatron source is its relatively high current density and the use of aggressive gases (oxygen, nitrogen) without any restrictions.
At low currents (1 nA) and high voltage (25 keV), a spatial resolution below 5 nm can be achieved. 21]. For application in AES surface analysis, the two most important electron gun characteristics are: 1. High beam current for high sensitivity (limited by spatial resolution and sample damage) 2. Low beam diameter for high spatial resolution (limited by beam current). ˇB ; ˛p / is the primary current density, given by the source brightness, ˇB , and the aperture angle, ˛p . For a given beam diameter, high current density and therefore high brightness of the electron source is essential to get Ip high enough for a sufficiently high signalto-noise level (see Sect.
An input lens with a very high acceptance angle of 85ı is used in the Thetaprobe instrument of Thermo VG Company to enable angle-resolved measurement in combination with a position-sensitive detector which gives count rates for selected emission-angle regions. Thus, angle-resolved XPS is possible without tilting the sample (see Sect. 6). , or the constant or fixed analyzer transmission (CAT or FAT) mode, where E D const. E=E D const:/ mode is generally used in AES, in XPS, the FAT mode is exclusively used in XPS.