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HIG-69-2, 1-99. 1. Types of Reefs and Distribution 19 Revelle, R. (1954). Geology of Bikini and nearby atolls. , Geol. , Prof. Pap. 260-A, Foreword, i-vii. Ruhen, O. (1963). " Little, Brown, Boston, Massachusetts. Schott, G. (1935). " C. Boysen, Hamburg. Squires, D. F. (1962). Corals at the mouth of the Rewa River, Viti Levu, Fiji. Nature (London) 195, 361-362. Stanley, D. , and Swift, D. J. P. (1967). Bermuda's southern aeolianite reef tract. Science 157, 677-681. Stoddart, D. R. (1965). The shape of atolls.

DARWIN'S SUBSIDENCE THEORY Darwin was impressed during the voyage of the Beagle by geological evidence of uplift in the South American Andes and by his personal involvement in the Chilean earthquake of February 1835. He hypothesized that such uplift must necessarily be balanced by a corresponding crustal subsidence, and before leaving South America he formed the view that one result of such subsidence would be the transformation of oceanic volcanic islands into atolls (Fig. 1). From South America he sailed through the Tuamotus to Tahiti, where from the high volcanic slopes he viewed the neighboring reef-encircled island of Moorea, comparing the island, lagoon and reef to an engraving in a frame.

Similar suggestions had been previously made by Le Conte (1857) for Florida and by Agassiz (1894, p. 172) in the West Indies, interpreting the present surface reefs as comparatively thin veneers on basements of older and in some cases nonreef origin. Guppy (1884) reached a similar conclusion in the Solomon Islands. Darwin (1842, p. 101) had clearly stated that reefs might grow wherever suitable banks occurred. The most complete evidence for this position is provided by work done in the West Indies by Vaughan (1914, 1916, 1918, 1923), who in a series of papers clearly distinguished between the foundations of reefs and either their present surface features or the distribution of modern living reef communities.

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