By V. Frolov, I. Novikov
This quantity on black holes will be noticeable as a sequel to Physics of Black Holes, released via Kluwer educational Publishers in 1989. The authors are recognized specialists of their box, and feature a long time' adventure in instructing classes on basic relativity and black holes. the current paintings covers virtually all points of black gap physics and its astrophysical purposes. one of the issues handled intensive are: spacetime of desk bound black holes, common idea of black holes, black gap perturbations, black gap numerics, black gap electrodynamics, black holes in unified theories of gravity, quantum black holes, ultimate states of evaporating black holes and the data loss puzzle. distinctive awareness is paid to the function of black holes in astrophysics and observational proof of black gap life. Many unique matters associated with black holes, akin to white holes, wormholes, and time machines are mentioned intimately. a variety of appendices hide mathematical facets of common relativity and black holes and quantum box thought in curved area time. This makes the booklet essentially self-contained. broad references give you the reader with a advisor to the literature during this box. viewers: This e-book may be of curiosity to researchers and postgraduate scholars whose paintings includes relativity and gravitation, statistical physics, thermodynamics, energetic galactic nuclei and stellar physics.
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Additional info for Black Hole Physics. Basic Concepts and New Developments
3). 18) is a spherically 40 CHAPTER 2. 1. It is easy to see that the relation r r g in Kruskal coordinates implies that either U = 0 or V = O. The null surface U = 0 which separates the exterior region R' and the black hole region T_ is called the event horizon. The null surface V = 0 which separates the exterior region and white hole region is called the past horizon. 1 Equations of motion of a free test particle Let us return to the discussion of processes in the black hole exterior, in the space outside the Schwarzschild sphere.
2 Radial motion of particles Let us now look at the radial motion of non-relativistic particles in vacuum. We begin with free motion in which no non-gravitational forces act on a particle (free fall, motion along a geodesic). 7) ' where E is the constant of motion 4 describing the total energy of a particle, including its mass m. If the particle is at rest at infinity where the gravitational field vanishes, then E = mc 2. In the general case, the value E /mc 2 may be greater or smaller than unity, but E is invariably positive for a particle moving outside the sphere of radius l'g.
3ac ( I 40 R - 1. ) 2"sm2R I . 8) If the boundary coordinate R 1 lies in the range 1r/2 < R I < 1r, the inner region of the sphere is the so-called semi-closed world [Klein (1961), see also Novikov (1962a, 1963, 1964a), Zel'dovich (1962c), Zel'dovich and Novikov (1975, 1983)J. In these conditions an increase in R I (addition of new layers of matter) increases M. but diminishes M (because of a large gravitational defect of mass). Our objective is to analyze the sequence of spacetimes when we supply progressively smaller and smaller specific energy to the cloud particles.