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Therefore when the electron is lost, only a proton remains. However, hydrogen ions in water do not exist as free protons, but as hydrated protons. These are given the formula H3O+(aq) and are sometimes known as hydronium ions. For simplicity, we often write the above equation as: H2O(l) ⇌ H+(aq) + OH−(aq) However, you must remember that hydrogen ions in water or in aqueous solution are not free protons, but are hydrated and that H+(aq) is a shorthand representation of H3O+(aq). The equilibrium constant K = [H3O+(aq)] × [OH−(aq)] or, more simply, we can write Kw = [H+][OH−].

We will apply this relationship in the following example. Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction: At 0 K, the particles in a solid are no longer vibrating and are perfectly ordered. Therefore the entropy of a substance at 0 K is zero. This is known as the third law of thermodynamics. As the temperature increases from 0 K, the entropy of the solid substance increases gradually until its melting point is reached. At this point there is a rapid increase in entropy as the substance changes state from solid to liquid.

From this information, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the lemon juice and apple juice are in the proportion (ratio) A 100 : 1 B 1 : 100 C 20 : 1 D 3 : 5. 3 Calculate the pH when the hydrogen ion concentration is: (a) 0·22 mol l−1; (b) 4·1 × 10−6 mol l−1; (c) 8·5 × 10−10 mol l−1 4 Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in an aqueous solution which has: (a) pH = 3·2; (b) pH = 9·4; (c) [OH−] = 3·9 × 10−9 mol l−1; (d) [OH−] = 9·4 × 10−7 mol l−1 29 Inorganic and physical chemistry: Chemical equilibrium 3: The concept of strong and weak INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 3: THE CONCEPT OF STRONG AND WEAK STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS In chemistry, the words strong and weak have a very different meaning from concentrated and dilute.

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