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By Mark D. J. Williams

Many nations in Sub-Saharan Africa see broadband ICT as an important a part of their long term financial improvement process. spine networks are the high-capacity networks that lie on the center of communications platforms and make allowance the supply of the excessive volumes of information wanted for broadband. What high-capacity spine networks that do exist within the area are usually restricted to significant city parts and a few inter-city routes. festival among spine networks is underdeveloped so the cost of prone is still excessive and caliber is usually negative. This trend of community improvement is the results of excessive expenses and regulatory regulations on community improvement. the place international locations have absolutely liberalized their telecommunications markets and promoted infrastructure pageant, costs have fallen and caliber greater. spine community coverage should still specialise in selling festival, decreasing the price of community building and inspiring community improvement into presently underserved parts. festival should be promoted by means of elimination regulatory regulations corresponding to limits at the variety of licenses and constraints on form of infrastructure and companies that licensees can provide. the price of spine community improvement may be decreased by using strength and delivery infrastructure and lowering felony charges equivalent to acquiring making plans permission.Stimulating spine community improvement past significant city parts might be completed via developing public-private partnerships to motivate operators to construct networks into presently underserved parts.

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Understanding the Dynamics of Backbone Networks A combination of economic and regulatory forces have created this pattern of backbone network development in Sub-Saharan Africa characterized by extensive, low-capacity wireless coverage and highcapacity fiber networks concentrated in certain specific geographical areas. These same forces are influencing the way the market structure is developing, being dominated by vertically integrated operators and only limited aggregation of traffic onto high-capacity networks.

8. Data operators were able to sell backbone capacity to ISPs for the provision of data services but were prevented from selling such capacity to be used for carrying voice traffic. ISPs were also prevented from providing voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) services to customers. These constraints have been removed in the new framework. 9. It is worth noting that this is changing. The commercial success of mobile operators in Africa, the increase in traffic arising from a growing customer base, and the shift in strategy from an exclusive focus on voice to one that includes broadband mean that network operators are now considering investment in fiber-optic networks that once would have been considered too risky.

Scalable investments allow operators to expand their networks as demand develops, hence reducing the risk that networks are overdimensioned. Reversibility reflects the ability of a network operator to reverse investments and sell or reuse capital equipment if necessary. 41 BROADBAND FOR AFRICA Some types of network investments are more reversible than others. Microwave and satellite transmission equipment, for example, can be moved and used in another part of the network if necessary. Since the majority of the capital cost of a fiber network lies in civil works, such as construction of trenches and installation of ducts, that cannot be moved once built, investment in such networks is largely irreversible (sometimes referred to as “sunk costs”).

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