Download Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, by Sergey V. Dorozhkin PDF

By Sergey V. Dorozhkin

Due to an outstanding chemical similarity with the organic calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates own extraordinary biocompatibility and bioactivity. fabrics scientists use this estate generally to build man made bone grafts which are both solely made from or purely surface-coated with the biologically suitable calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made up of calcium orthophosphates are very promising instruments for tissue engineering functions. A finished review of calcium orthophosphates, this booklet highlights their significance and biomedical uses.

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Extra info for Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine

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The crystal structure of HA is well described elsewhere [28, 114–116], the detailed analysis of the electronic structure, bonding, charge transfer, optical and elastic properties are also available [346–350], while the readers interested in Posner’s clusters are referred to other papers [345, 351–353]. A shell model was developed to study the lattice dynamics of HA [354], while a cluster growth model was created to illustrate its growth [291]. Polarization characteristics [355, 356] and pyroelectrical properties [357] of HA bioceramics have been investigated.

Furthermore, a direct correlation between Ca deficiency and the mechanical properties of the crystals was found: calcium deficiency leads to an 80% reduction in the hardness and elastic modulus and at least a 75% reduction in toughness in plate-shaped HA crystals [331]. 1), there are vacancies of Ca2+ (mainly on Ca(2) sites) and OH− ions in crystal structure of this compound [327, 329–334]. However, due to Ca2+ vacancies in CDHA, the resulting negative charge might be compensated by protonation of both an OH− ion within the deficient calcium-triangle and a PO43− ion in the nearest neighborhood of the vacant calcium site.

Although, α-TCP never occurs in biological calcifications, in medicine, it is used as a component of calcium orthophosphate cements [131, 148–151, 166–168, 262–265]. On the other hand, the chemically pure α-TCP has received not much interest in the biomedical field [244]. The disadvantage for using α-TCP is its quick resorption rate, which limits its application in this area. However, the silicon stabilized α-TCP (more precisely as a biphasic composite with HA) has been commercialized as a starting material to produce bioresorbable porous ceramic scaffolds to be used as artificial bone grafts [239, 252–256].

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