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When it comes to the infrastructure layer, redundancy and QoS are key. 999 percent (approximately 5 minutes of downtime per year). In order to achieve this same level of performance in a converged network, your network infrastructure should be tuned for lightning-fast failover should any device or physical link fail. In the same sense, QoS should carry the voice traffic from source to destination using priority bandwidth that is untouched by data traffic. Voice phone calls should never compete for bandwidth from any data application.
The ring signal is then generated at the remote device and the call is connected. As the users converse, if one of them presses the Transfer button, for example, the call processing layer steps in to process this request. Just about any time someone touches a phone, the call processing layer gets involved. When Cisco first moved into the IP telephony space, the initial product offering for the call processing layer was Cisco CallManager. This product could handle a voice network of nearly any size.
Of course, there is far more than just voice to send over the phone lines. The analog phones you use at home must convey many different types of signaling as well. Signaling includes messages such as dial tone, dialed digits, busy signals, and so on. These signaling types will be discussed in just a moment. For now, let’s look at the cabling used to make analog connections function. Loop Start and Ground Start Signaling Each analog circuit is composed of a pair of wires. One wire is the ground, or positive side of the connection (this is often called the tip).