By Sam Dzever, Jacques Jaussaud
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A lot fresh financial research has been dedicated to exploring the results of internationalization on macroeconomic coverage strategies, nationwide competitiveness, and rewards to numerous elements of creation. The principal proposition of this quantity is that we will not comprehend politics inside international locations with out comprehending the character of the linkages among nationwide economies and the area economic climate, and alterations in such linkages.
There's common contract within the present social and monetary debate that the countries of the area have gotten more and more built-in. Many structural indicators in society additionally recommend that this is often so. Integration has turn into a catchword within the prepara tions for the interior marketplace of the EC, and a keynote within the debate approximately organization for the eu international locations which don't belong to the neighborhood.
Additional info for China and India: Economic Performance and Business Strategies of Firms in the Mid 1990s
Types of investors The "FDI gap" between the EU and its Japanese and US competitors, on the Asian market as a whole, has been widely acknowledged (CEC, 1994; CEC, 1995)_7 Being the smallest investor of the three, the EU is only marginally involved in Asia. 7 per cent for the US and Japan respectively. Is this lack of dynamism valid for the two individual countries under review here? 0 Source: European Report, 20 March 1996, no. 2117, pp. 9-10 common characteristic, which is the relative importance of overseas Chinese and Indian investment flows.
The notoriously high ash content in Indian coal, and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions from them, make them one of the most polluting industries. Finally, the reforms are borne on the premises of two different political systems. 23 In spite of the major attractive package included in the industrial and macroeconomic policies of both countries, many entry barriers have played (and still play) a deterring role for foreign investment. Barriers to entry Although the industrial economics literature focuses essentially on economic, business, and, to some extent, legal barriers to entry into a market, obstacles encountered by would-be (European) investors in countries such as China and India are much more numerous and diverse.
For example, in the power generation sector, 100 per cent foreign equity is permitted (Kumar, 1995). Automatic approval is now given for up to 51 per cent foreign ownership in 36 high-priority industries, including mining, power, telecommunications, and highways, airports, and seaports. Companies already established in India can raise their equity holding above the 51 per cent mark as part of an expansion programme (India NewsleUer, March 1996). However, foreign companies are restricted to 49 per cent equity in some segments of the telecommunications industry.