By R. del Río, F. Medeiro, B. Pérez-Verdú, J. M. De la Rosa, Á Rodríguez-V´zquez (auth.)
CMOS Cascade Sigma-Delta Modulators for Sensors and Telecom: mistakes research and sensible Design begins with an educational presentation of the basics of low-pass sigma-delta modulators, their functions, and their commonest architectures. It then provides an exhaustive research of SC circuit blunders with a twofold consequence. at the one hand, compact expressions are derived to aid layout plans and quickly top-down layout. at the different, specified behavioral types are awarded to aid actual verification. This set of types permits the fashion designer to figure out the necessary requisites for the various modulator construction blocks and shape the root of a scientific layout procedure. The e-book is finished in next chapters with the distinct presentation of 3 high-performance modulator ICs: the 1st are meant for DSL-like purposes, while the 3rd one is meant for car sensors.
CMOS Cascade Sigma-Delta Modulators for Sensors and Telecom: blunders research and functional Design comprises hugely helpful details that's dependent to offer the reader the mandatory perception on find out how to layout SC sigma-delta modulators.
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24 summarizes results obtained with these two approaches, showing the maximum SNR achievable by single-bit 6'Ms of various orders against OSR . The theoretical performance for pure differentiator NTF s is included for comparison purposes. Note that in both cases the obtained SNR is much lower than that of the ideal case. Nevertheless, as shown in Fig. 24b, the optimal placement of zeros in the signal band can lead to stable high-order 6'Ms with high SNR at moderate oversampling ratios ( OSR a 32 64 ).
40) in this example). This makes SNR curves less dependent on the input DC-level and reduces the presence of idle tones in the output spectrum, as shown in Fig. 20b and Fig. 20c, respectively. In fact, the decorrelation between the quantization error and the input signal increases with the modulator order. This, together with circuit noise acting as a dithering signal in practical implementations, greatly helps to palliate the coloration of quantization error. 8. The optimum selection for a given application may not apply in a different scenario.
16 Ideal performance of multi-bit 6'Ms. DR and ENOB versus OSR for different modulator orders ( L ) and resolutions of the internal quantizer ( B ). 3 Single-Loop 6' Architectures In the previous section, the operation principles and ideal performance of generic 6'Ms have been introduced. This section presents 6' topologies using a certain number of integrators and one quantizer, which are often referred to as single-loop 6'Ms, but single-stage or single-quantizer architectures may also apply. Their linear performance will be discussed, as well as aspects that are not covered by the additive white noise approximation —such as pattern noise, idle tones, or instabilities.