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By Richard C. Dorf

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Extra info for Computers, Software Engineering, and Digital Devices (The Electrical Engineering Handbook Third Edition)

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The next section discusses devices that are edge-sensitive. Flip-Flops Early types of flip-flops were master-slave, pulse-triggered devices that had no data-lockout circuitry and caused a storage error if improperly used due to 1s and 0s catching. To prevent 1s and 0s catching, datalockout (also called variable-skew) circuitry was added to some master-slave flip-flop types. Due to the improved design features and popularity of edge-triggered flip-flops, master-slave flip-flops are not recommended for newer designs and, in some cases, have been made obsolete by manufacturers, making them difficult to obtain even for repair parts.

Optical turn-off times are also limited by the RC time constant. For devices made so far, the RC time constants are in the range of 1–10 ns, and optical switch-on times were ,10 ns. 32 Differential pnpn device. devices is expected to improve as the areas are reduced; # 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC switching times comparable to the best electronic devices (,10 ps) are possible, although the optical turn-on times of at least the surface-emitting LED devices will continue to be slower since this time is determined by diffusion effects and not device capacitance and resistance.

The power supply terminals VCC1, VCC2, VEE, and VTT are available for flexibility in biasing. 2 V, and VTT is biased to ÿ2 V. 9 V. Operation with the VCC terminals grounded maximizes the immunity from noise interference. A brief description of the operation of the circuit will verify that none of the transistors saturates. 2 V, and VTT is ÿ2 V. 8 V. 35 V at the base of T2. 7 V. 35 V, so T2 is cut off. 9 V, corresponding to a logical 1 at the (A þ B) output. 96 V. 76 V, corresponding to a logical 0.

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