Download Concise Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications in by Jeremy Dunning-Davies PDF

By Jeremy Dunning-Davies

This one-semester path textual content introduces simple rules of thermodynamics and considers quite a few functions in technology and engineering. the fashionable assurance is compact but self contained and holistic, with sufficient fabric in a concise and economically-priced publication for complex undergraduates and postgraduates examining for first and better levels, and for execs in examine and undefined. The mathematical prerequisite is an realizing of partial differentiation.

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Extra resources for Concise Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications in Physical Science and Engineering, Second Edition

Example text

In the complete cycle P --+ II --+ h --+ P there is no resultant = change in energy and so Q W. Hence, the system has performed a cycle in which the sole effect is the absorption of heat and the conversion of this heat completely into work. Since this violates the Kelvin statement of the Second Law, it follows that both fi and 12 may not be reached from P by quasi static adiabatic processes; only one point, say fi , on a line of constant VI and V2 (that is, a line of constant deformation) may be reached from P by a quasi static adiabatic process.

Axx) =as(U. XI •.... 2) for all positive a. At this stage. the new variables Xi may be thought of as supplementing the information provided by knowledge of the internal energy and of the external parameters (or deformation coordinates) Vi; that is. they may be regarded as providing additional information about the internal state of the system. Any thermodynamic function f which may be expressed in terms of a complete set of independent thermodynamic variables K, • X2 ..... such that 46 [eh 7] Extension to Open and Non-Equilibrium Systems f( aXl, aX2 , •••••• ) = af( Xl, X2 , •••••• ) is called an extensive variable in thermodynamics; mathematically, it is a homogeneous function of degree one.

Crucially, Carnot recognised that a heat engine works most efficiently if the transfer of heat occurs as part of a cyclic process and also, that the main factor in determining the amount of work which may be extracted from a heat engine is the temperature difference between the heat source and the sink into which the caloric flows. Both these points turn out to be independent of the actual model of the heat flow process. Finally, he devised a cycle of operations - now known as the Carnot cycle - as an idealisation of the behaviour of any heat engine.

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