By Thomas Böllinghaus, John Lippold, Carl Edward Cross
This is the fourth quantity within the well-established sequence of compendiums dedicated to the topic of weld scorching cracking. It includes the papers offered on the 4th overseas Cracking Workshop held in Berlin in April 2014. within the context of this workshop, the time period “cracking” refers to sizzling cracking within the classical and former experience, but additionally to chilly cracking, stress-corrosion cracking and increased temp. solid-state cracking. quite a few varied cracking matters are mentioned, together with try out criteria, crack prediction, weldability decision, crack mitigation, rigidity states, numerical modelling, and cracking mechanisms. Likewise, many various alloys have been investigated similar to aluminum alloys, copper-aluminum distinctive steel, austenitic chrome steel, nickel base alloys, duplex stainless-steel, creep resistant metal, and excessive power steel.
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Additional resources for Cracking Phenomena in Welds IV
Here the stresses of welding add to the pre-applied load in order to promote cracking. A critical applied stress needed for cracking can be found in this manner and can be considered a measure of weldability. Towards Establishment of Weldability Testing Standards … 43 Table 1 Weldability tests developed to investigate solidiﬁcation cracking Test Cast versus weld Intrinsic versus extrinsic Bending versus tensile Solidiﬁcation cracking index References Cast ring test U-Shape casting test Harp (backbone) mold test Cast Cast Cast Intrinsic Intrinsic Intrinsic – – Tensile [16–18]  [20, 21] Warrington test Cast pin tear test Cast Cast Intrinsic Intrinsic – Tensile Circular patch test T-Test Lehigh test Weld Weld Weld Intrinsic Intrinsic Intrinsic Tensile – Tensile Houldcroft test Weld Intrinsic Tensile Fan-shaped test Weld Intrinsic Tensile Free-edge test Weld Intrinsic Tensile Variable restraint box test Sigmajig test Pre-loading tensile strain (PLTS) test Varestraint test Weld Intrinsic Tensile Crack length Crack length Crack length Specimen length Specimen diameter Crack length Crack length Specimen length Specimen diameter Crack length Crack length Crack length Slot depth Crack length Slot depth Crack length Plate width Crack length Distance from free edge Restraint  Weld Weld Intrinsic Intrinsic Tensile Tensile Preload Preload   Weld Extrinsic Bending  Transvarestraint test Weld Extrinsic Bending Spot varestraint test Modiﬁed varestraint test (MVT) Variable tensile strain hot cracking test Weld Weld Extrinsic Extrinsic Bending Bending Weld Extrinsic Tensile Strain Ductility curves-BTR Strain Ductility curves-BTR Strain Strain Strain rate Strain rate  [22–24] [25, 26]   [29–31]      [41, 42] (continued) 44 N.
G. maximum strain in the Varestraint Test), it is actually the local strains in the vicinity of the weld pool that are of primary importance to cracking models, and these strains cannot be easily measured. Techniques developed to estimate these local strains have included examination of surface oxide displacement (so called “MISO” technique) [42, 60, 67], use of mechanical extensometers [7, 49, 68, 69], optical grid pattern analysis [70–72], and digital image correlation with speckle pattern [54, 73, 74].
Houldcroft (Fig. 7) and Lehigh Tests, incorporate slots milled along the sides of the weld coupon. Fig. 7 Schematic of houldcroft test (top view) 50 N. E. Cross In the Houldcroft Test, increasingly longer slots towards the end of the coupon relieve restraint to the point where crack growth can no longer continue. Crack length is taken as a measure of weldability, where long cracks represent crack growth resilience (poor weldability). A distinction should be made here between crack initiation and crack growth when considering weldability (to be discussed later).