By Tomas S. Walker, Jeffrey R. Alwang
Following on from the CGIAR learn through Evenson and Gollin (published through CABI in 2003), this quantity offers up to date estimates of adoption results and productiveness affects of crop kind development examine in sub-Saharan Africa. The ebook stories at the result of the DIIVA venture that focussed at the varietal new release, adoption and impression for 20 meals vegetation in 30 international locations. It additionally compares adoption results in sub-Saharan Africa to these in South Asia, and courses destiny efforts for worldwide agricultural examine
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Extra resources for Crop improvement, adoption and impact of improved varieties in food crops in Sub-Saharan Africa
Years Focus Data source Main findings Pardey et al. 3 billion ($ 2004) by 2004 in SSA Change in composition of CG investments away from crop-productivity enhancements; dramatic decline in the real value of crop productivity, enhancing research since the mid-1980s Evenson and Gollin (2003) Maredia and Raitzer (2006) 1970s – 2004, with a focus on 2000–2004 J. Alwang Source Research expenditures and staffing ASTI Fuglie and Rada (2013) 1981–2005 Research expenditures, spread of modern varieties, impacts of research ASTI, supplemented by CG Center reports Strong growth in real resources devoted to agricultural R&D since 2001 in SSA Agricultural GDP growth in SSA lags behind overall growth even through 2008 Uneven patterns of spending: large systems drive overall trends and some very small NARS are vulnerable because of low spending and staffing levels Institutional arrangements for agricultural R&D vary from country to country but single agency dominates in most; in smaller countries, bulk of research is being conducted by disperse government agencies and universities Government role is shrinking over time Researchers in higher education are growing and more than doubled from 1991–2008; the share of higher education in public R&D research staff grew from 15 to 24% during the same period R&D investments have had a strong impact on total factor productivity region-wide Prior to mid-1980s, growth in agricultural output in SSA was due to increased use of inputs (land, labour and capital), not growth in productivity Since mid-1980s, total factor productivity growth in SSA averaged about 1% per year Policy environment affects linkages between research investments and productivity growth CIMMYT, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat); ICRAF, International Center for Agroforestry; IITA, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; ILRI, International Livestock Research Institute.
Variability in research intensity across countries increased modestly until the mid-1990s and then grew dramatically since the late 1990s. This trend confirms the Beintema and Stads (2011) conclusion that the recent growth in agricultural research expenditures in SSA is not broad-based. A few countries are increasing investments substantially, whereas others are not. Support for agricultural R&D has experienced fits of increase and decrease for the entire SSA region and, in an even more pronounced fashion, for individual countries.
1997). This unevenness makes it difficult to make generalizations from aggregate trends; the aggregates obscure major differences across countries and for individual years. For example, investments in the Nigerian system grew during the 1960s and 1970s as oil revenues boomed, but shrunk dramatically during the 1980s to the point where they were (in 1991) less than one-half what they were in the 1970s. Some systems had relatively even growth, such as Kenya, Burkina Faso and Ethiopia, while others, including Nigeria, Ghana and Madagascar, had rapid growth followed by a decade-long decline in real research expenditures.