By Ranbir Vohra
Revised to surround advancements via to the top of the 20 th century, this can be a examine of India's complicated background and society. the writer perspectives the advance of Indian civilization by way of the socio-religious conflicts and traditions via time, and their effect on political tradition.
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Additional resources for The Making of India: A Historical Survey
The predatory character of the Maratha forces outside their homeland of Maharashtra, their plundering and looting of non-Maratha Hindu communities such as the Rajputs, lost them the respect of the Hindus and the right to lead the Hindus against the Muslim rulers. The Bengali Hindus have left us a vivid picture of the behavior of the Maratha raiders: "They shouted over and over. again, 'Give us money,' and when they got no money they filled the peoples' nostrils with water, and some they seized and drowned in tanks....
This strange desire of the mighty warlords to remain vassals of a fictitious central authority makes sense only if we bear in mind that the hollow shell of feudalism was used by the dominant local rulers as a device to legitimize their territorial expansion and that it conceded them the right to become overlords of lesser nawabs and rajas and have vassals of their own. The Mughal military-feudal system, though modified, was the only style of politics that the new power holders could understand and follow.
The relation of a zamindar to government and of a ryot [tenant farmer] to zamindar is neither that of a proprietor nor a vassal but a compound of both. The former performs acts of authority unconnected with property rights. " 40 The internal government of the villages continued to be run by panchayat councils (mostly in the north) or village committees (in the south). The nonagricultural artisan and service castes were maintained by being provided a fixed share of the village produce and, sometimes, through allocation of small plots of land.